Environmental pollution is the contamination of the physical and biological components of the atmosphere to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected. Air pollution is contamination of environment by addition of chemical substances, noxious gases, particulate matter etc which disturb its natural physical and chemical composition.
Air pollution comes from both natural and man-made sources Such as combustion, construction, mining, Agriculture, automobiles, industrialisation and warfare. Common gaseous air pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbans (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides along with particulate matter or fine dust.
Consequences of Air pollution.
Pollution causes not only physical disabilities but also psychological and behavioral disorders in human beings such as headache, bronchitis, asthama, irritation of eyes, cardiovascular problems etc. Animals and plants are also affected by pollution.
The World Health Organization estimates that about two million people die prematurely every year as a result of air pollution, https://www.skymetweather.com/content/weather-news-and-analysis/severe-air-pollution-may-lead-to-birth-defects-and-fatalities-during-pregnancy-study/ while many more suffer from breathing ailments, heart disease, lung infections and even cancer. Fine particles or microscopic dust from coal or wood fires and unfiltered diesel engines are rated as one of the most lethal forms of air pollution caused by industry, transport, household heating, cooking and coal or oil-fired power stations.
Indoor Air Pollution
In addition to outdoor air pollution, Indoor air pollution is now viewed seriously by many health organizations as one of the greatest risk to human health as most of the people spend about 90% of the time indoor either in home or office. Polluted indoor air quality imposes both short term ( Irritation of eyes, headache, nausea, allergic reactions, asthma) and long term (chronic bronchitis, heart disease, lung cancer, liver and kidney damage ) effects on health.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term referring to the air quality within and around buildings as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. More than three billion people worldwide continue to depend on solid fuels, including biomass fuels (wood, dung, agricultural residues) and coal, for their energy needs. Cooking and heating with solid fuels on open fires or traditional stoves results in high levels of indoor air pollution. Indoor smoke contains a range of health-damaging pollutants, such as small particles and carbon monoxide.
Indoor Air Pollution is prevalent both at urban and rural levels. Urban Indoor Air pollution can be experienced in poorly ventilated compact buildings such as Apartments, Auditoriums, theatres, hospitals, schools, colleges etc due to human gatherings and modern life style commodities as Air Conditioners, Vacuum cleaners room fresheners, sprays, disinfectants, paints, smoking habit etc. Rural Indoor Air Pollution is mainly due to use of traditional stoves using organic fuel (Coal, wood) for cooking which release large amount of smoke and CO which affects respiratory process.
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) can be affected by microbial contamination, gases including Radon, CO, CO2, Volatile Organic Compounds as formaldehyde, benzene, trichloroethylene, xylene, toluene, particulate matter, pollen and fungal spores, pesticides etc or any mass or energy stress that can induce adverse health conditions. Most of indoor pollutants are carcinogenic and neurotoxins.